After the continuous development and deepening of reform and opening up, China’s economic development speed has experienced a rapid increase, and the ecological problems caused by the contradiction between man and nature have become increasingly prominent. XI Jin-ping’s ecological civilization thought has profound connotations. Firstly, it requires that people actively implement the ecological concept of “lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets”. Then people must also adhere to the basic principles of respecting, conforming to and protecting nature, and promote the formation of green development methods and lifestyles. Finally it points out that the building of ecological civilization is related to the realization of beautiful China. From the economic perspective, this paper analyzes the economic implications of XI Jin-ping’s thought on ecological civilization from the aspects of unification of natural wealth and artificial wealth, coordination of ecological benefits and economic benefits, and consistent ecological balance with social reproduction. Therefore, from the aspects of establishing the mechanism of ecological economic development and promoting green production methods and lifestyles, inspired by XI Jin-ping’s ecological civilization thought, this paper puts forward some important implications for the healthy and high-quality development of our country’s economy, providing guidance for the sound development of China’s economy.
The ecological problem is essentially a contradiction between ecosystem evolution and the pursuit of the value for human survival. Based on modern science of complexity, the contradictions between the evolution of ecosystem and the pursuit of human survival value are analyzed in perspective of dialectics. At the same time, the concept of open ecological civilization is put forward. The paper points out that the evolution of human culture accelerates the evolution of ecosystem, which in return restricts the survival and development of human beings to some extent. The author argues that when the new “curtain” of the evolution of the earth’s ecosystem comes, human beings must re-examine their own civilization model, make a balanced choice between the law of facts and the pursuit of value, correctly locate the survival value of human beings and their position in the earth’s ecosystem, stop clinging to or sticking to the original enclosed civilization model, and establish the development model synchronized with the evolution of the ecosystem on the basis of an open ecosystem.
National parks are one of the new types of nature reserves, and they play a dominant role in China’s nature reserves system. Environmental ethics in the new era is the fundamental norm for the building of ecological civilization in national parks. Ecological citizens who master environmental ethics in the new era are positive energy groups that promote the construction of national parks. Starting from the connotation of national parks and environmental ethics, this paper analyzes the driving role of environmental ethics in the new era on the construction of national parks, and interprets the cultivation of ecological citizens as the main significance of national park construction. It has important implication to the construction of ecological civilization in China. It also provides different dimensions of ecological thinking and cognition for the better construction of national parks in China.
The General Plan for Establishing National Park System, issued in 2017, marked that the accomplishment of the top-level design for National Park System by the central government of China, in which national park is positioned as a type of natural protected area with most strict conservation. Developing tourism is one of the most important ways to fulfill national park’s functions of environmental education and recreation. In the background that national park is regarded as the most-strict conservation type of natural protected area, it is a huge practical challenge that whether tourism can be developed and how to be developed in national parks of China in the future. National Park System of China is now in its early development stage. Summarizing the mature experence of national park tourism development from other countries is practically of great significance for realizing the sustainable management. Japan is one of the Asian countries with longest history of national park system building, and its national park management has international reputation on the planet. Compared with North America and New Zealand, Japan’s experience is of more value for China, considering Japan is featured by huge population inhabiting narrow land and national parks are usually home to quite a lot of residents. In this paper, the authors, by taking the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park as the case, attempt to cast lights on the practical experience and model of Japanese national park in protecting tourist attraction and environment, building tourism facilities, developing tourist product and also encouraging community involvement with tourism.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the NGO involvement process for the community development. It investigates nature conservation NGOs and community residents in the Sanjiangyuan area, and takes field observation and in-depth interviews as the data collection methods, by using the embeddedness theory as the theoretical research framework. Nvivo 12.0 software is used to establish a logical framework for the involvement process between two parties such as the conceptual framework of the embedding cause-embedding means-embedding effect. Results reveal that the initial involvement of NGOs in a community’s nature conservation activities is determined by the goals and social relationship. It generally depends on resources, culture, neighborhood, structure embedding. The ultimate goal is to achieve the enhancement of protection effect, resident participation awareness and their ability to participate. The paper also discusses how NGOs play a more effective role in community governance in the background of constructing national parks.
The cooperation between state-owned forest farms and communities developed in Sanming City, Fujian Province, is of important practical significance for solving the development dilemma of poor forest management benefits and the fragmentation of forest land in collective forest areas, and for exploring the path of realizing forestry-driven rural economic development. This article analyzes the mode of cooperative forest management in Sanming from four aspects: cooperation motivation, cooperation methods, division methods of management and profit distribution schemes, and proposes an innovative and optimized cooperation mode to help solve the problem of uncoordinated interests between state-owned forest farms and communities. The promotion of government, diversified stock share methods, efficient and win-win business division, profit pre-dividends, profit guarantees and other profit distribution plans are the key to maintaining cooperation. This research is conducive to promoting the smooth operation of forests by state-owned forest farms and communities in other areas, especially for southern China’s collective forests, in order to improve the ecological and economic value of forests and realize rural revitalization.
Fangshan District of Beijing was officially identified as one of the collective forestry comprehensive reform experiment demonstration areas in 2015, and the construction work was evaluated and accepted at the end of 2017. Based on the empirical study on the Fangshan comprehensive reform experiment demonstration area, this paper aims to investigate the implementation process in the demonstration areas construction, the reform effectiveness being achieved and the existing problems by applying statistical description and case analysis methods. The paper summarizes the achievements made so far and problems that still exist, including difficulty in forest rights mortgage loan, barriers for construction of forest land management supporting service facilities, weak profitability of collective forest management in mountainous areas, and insufficient attention and awareness on the construction work. Combined with local innovative practice and the requirements in new rounds of reform, the paper finally puts forward some reasonable perfecting countermeasures, such as enhancing support of policy, reinforcing institutional innovation and strengthening organizational guarantee to make the demonstration work more effective.
The contradiction between the ability of forestry providing rich forest products and favorable ecological services and the people’s increasing needs of high-quality forest products and nice services becomes the principal conflict of forestry development in the new era. Because the area of forest resources in China is restricted by space of expansion, expanding effective forestry supply inevitably depend mainly on the promotion of the quality and improvement of the structure of forest resources. Thus overall promoting forest management is the emphasis of forestry development. Based on analyzing the causes of low overall level of forest management, this paper suggests that forestry development in the new era should concentrate our efforts on forest management theory and model innovation, market allocation of resources, positive incentives, and human capital development.
Forest towns originate from characteristic towns and are a special form of characteristic towns. The state vigorously promotes the building of ecological civilization, and has issued a series of policies from the central government to the local governments to actively carry out the construction of forest towns. These policies reflect the sustainability, ecology, characteristics and coordination of the construction path of forest towns. However, the actual construction path of some domestic forest towns deviates from the policy connotation. This paper selected the Wugong Forest Town in Xianyang City as a case, and explored the problems existing in the construction path of the town from the perspectives of forest industry, government behavior, town culture and residents’ participation. Based on this, this paper puts forward that, during the construction of forest town, we should insist on adapting measures to local conditions and build a multi-industry mode dominated by forest resources; adhere to ecological protection and practice the theory of “two mountains”; adhere to the cultural confidence and activate the town forest culture; adhere to the policy guidance, create the operation and management mode with the participation of multiple subjects, and promote the forest towns to return to the path of sustainable development.
Since the implementation of the strategy of rural vitalization, the demand for green development of agriculture and improvement of rural environment has increased. However, China has not yet established the agricultural and rural ecological civilization standard system. Through analyzing China’s agricultural and rural policies and existing relevant standards, this paper summarizes and proposes 55 standardized objects from four aspects: green development of agriculture, rural living environment, rural ecological protection and restoration, and rural greening and rural tourism, attempting to establish the basic framework of agricultural and rural ecological civilization standard system. Besides, this paper puts forward the direction of formulating standards and the suggestions for the standardization of ecological civilization in agricultural and rural areas in the near future in order to provide reference for the standardization of agricultural and rural areas.
In the course of the development of modern forestry, there have been many long-term controversy between forestry scientists and geographers, geologists, meteorologists, hydrologists, engineers and other groups. The paper analyzes five similar cases,which demonstrates the extensive exchanges and interactions between China and the United States in the field of forestry from the perspective of transnational scientific and technological communication.The relationship between forestry and geology, climatology, engineering and other fields is also analyzed from an interdisciplinary perspective.Finally, the paper sums up the characteristics of forestry research in early modern times.
The Tongquetai in Cao Wei Dynasty had profound cultural connotation. Firstly,Tongquetai played an important political metaphor in the process of Cao Cao’s gradual usurpation of political power. Secondly, the Tongque Garden, centered on Tongquetai, was also known as the West Garden (Xiyuan). It was the place where Jian’an literati banquets were held. Jian’an literati were the first real literati in Chinese history, so the Xiyuan banquet was the origin of the ancient literati garden banquet. Thirdly, Tongquetai (Garden) has been constantly inscribed in the writings of literati for thousands of years, and its cultural image has also experienced the transformation from the “high platform” to the “Tongque singer” and to the “deep locking two Joe” image.